Suriyah), officially Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah (Syrian Arab
Republic), republic in southwestern Asia, bounded on the north by Turkey, on
the east by Iraq, on the south by Jordan, and on the west by Lebanon and the
Mediterranean Sea. Syria has an area of 185,180 sq km (71,498 sq mi). The
capital and largest city is Damascus, also spelled Dimashq. Syria has an
extreme east-west distance of about 830 km (about 515 mi) and an extreme
north-south distance of about 740 km (about 460 mi). Along the Mediterranean
coast, which is 193 km (120 mi) long.
The Geographical coordinates: 35 ° - 42 ° Longitude.
32 ° - 37 ° Latitude.
Total area: 185.180 km 2.
Main Cities: Damascus , Aleppo , Hama , Homs , Lattakia,
The Population: 17.155.814.( July 2002).
Habitants intensity: 92.64 person/ km 2 , and 2.5 % growth rate.
The western part: includes the coastal narrow planes, and high mountains extend to the north and south.
The middle part: includes the planes area ( Damascus , Hama , Homs and Aleppo planes).
The eastern part: includes the dry deserted planes ( Syrian desert ).
The highest point is Haramoun Mountain with 2814 m top height, and 200m near Tabaraia lake the lowest point.
Natural resources: Oil, phosphate, Gypsum, Marbles, Iron and rocky salt.
The Weather: Syria locates in a moderate warm area within the Mediterranean weather distinguished by moderate raining winter and dry summer with tow short transitional seasons.
The Syrian lands locate at the northern part pf Arabian plate, which includes the Arabian Peninsula , Palestine Syria , Lebanon , Jordan , and Iraq . The Arabian Plate is borders: in the west by the Red Sea and the Dead Sea fault (Syrian-African Rift), which extends between Aquaba Gulf and Escandaron Gulf . In the South: Aden , and in the east the Persian sub-plate ( Zagarouse Mountains ). In the North the Anatolian Plate (Torous mountains). The movement of the earth crust differs from one area to another in the middle east area according to the Arabian Plate movement which moves to the north in a rotating movement against the watch pointers in comparison with the African plate, This rotating movement leads to the induction of the Arabian Plate under the Anatolian plate and Persian one, which in consequence cause the displacement of the Persian to the east and the Anatolian to the west. The displacement rate of the Arabian Plate was estimates about 1cm/year approximately.
The Syrian lands from a part of the Mediterranean sea belt in which seismic events are concentrated along the Syrian-African rift, in result we can divide the Syrian lands into three zones according to seismic activity:
First zone: The Syrian-African rift area from the south to the north. This zone was affected by many seismic events with a magnitude 7.3 degree on Richter scale.
Second zone: includes the Palmyrids folding area : this zone is considered as one of the international examples as an inter-plate fold belt , it locates in the middle of Syria with a general direction north-east, south-west and 400km long and 100km width. This area was affected by seismic event with a magnitude 5.5 maximum.
Third zone: the north eastern area with a general direction north-east, south-west. The seismic events of a magnitude (6) maximum.